Evidence about online instruction in economics mostly concludes that students learn more in person than with online instruction. For instance, Alpert et al. (2016), Bettinger et al. (2017), Cacault et al. (2021), Figlio et al. (2013), Kofoed et al. (2021), and Orlov et al. (2021) find negative effects for students studying in complete online settings compared to those in person.
Besides, Cacault et al. (2021), Figlio et al. (2013), and Kofoed et al. (2021) show that effects are more harmful to low-achieving students. Bettinger et al. (2017) also suggest that online courses increase the probability of poorer grades in future courses and students dropping out.
However, adapting teaching strategies to the online environment can mitigate some negative effects. For instance, Orlov et al. (2021) and Picault (2021) describe adaptations in economics courses that could help students perform better in an online learning environment.